Touch and Gender
Meaning of Illness
All people fear surgery. Fear is normal. Your team is probably expert at managing fears of patients. Surgery may have other meanings for some patients. For Example...
Opening the body may cause the soul to fly out
The idea that air makes cancer spread is widely held and reasonable if you realize that poor people often present with advanced malignancies at open and close laparotomies
Fear of mutilation or sexual abuse while under anesthesia is not uncommon
The loss of body parts may render the body unclean and not fit for burial in sacred ground
Examine these fears with the patient